Grafting is the delicate process of connecting two grape varieties to achieve a stronger more disease resistant planting. Each graft is individually made by combining a rootstock (3309, 101-14 etc.) with the desired variety (Riesling, Chardonnay etc.)  The goal is to create hardier grapevines better suited for the growers soil and climate conditions. In addition, grafting onto low, moderate, or high density rootstocks can be used to create a vine size that is appropriate for the density and training system being used. ​


Low vigor, higher vigor in deep fertile soil.   

Our most popular rootstock, has been the foundation  of eastern viticulture.​

Good cool region rootstock, works well with clay soils.​

Can be vigorous during the first 3-5 years, then moderate vigor.​

Benefits from high Mg. soils.​

Does well on moist clay soils.​

Well suited for drought and saline soils.​

Rootstock Description Chart:

Key: L= Low, M= Medium, H= High. 



Rootstock         Parentage      Vigor     Matures     Dry     Wet     Lime     Saline     Clay     Dagger     Rootknot     Phylloxera     Comments

1616 Couderc    V. Riparia x        L           EARLY         L-M     M-H      10%        H              L              L                   H                   H              Low Vigor

                              V. Solonis


 Riparia Gloire   V. Riparia          L           EARLY         M-H     H           6%         L-M           H             M              L-M                  H              Low Vigor


101-14                  V. Riparia x       L-M       EARLY        L-M    L-M-H      9%         H              H             M                M                 M-H                                  

                              V. Rupestris


Schwarzmann   V. Riparia x       L-M     Ear/Mid.     L-M       M           8%        M- H         H              H               M-H               M-H          Does well in

                              V. Rupestris                                                                                                                                                                           moist/deep soil                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  


3309 Couderc     V. Riparia x       M       Ear/Mid      L-M        M         11%        L-M         L-M            H                L-M                 H

                              V. Rupestris




 SO4                     V. Riparia x        M       Ear/Mid     L-M        M-H     17%           M             H              M             M-H                M-H

                             V. Berlandieri



 5C Teleki           V. Riparia x        M       EARLY        L-M       M-H       18%         L- M          M-H          H                M                     H     

                             V. Berlandieri



 44-53M              V. Riparia x       M -H     EARLY        H          M-H        10%        ---            M-H          M               M                     H

                             V. Berlandieri


 5BB Kober        V. Riparia x       M-H      Ear/Mid    L-H       M-H         20%       M-H         H              M               M                     M-H

                             V. Berlandieri


 1103 Paulsen   V. Rupestris x    H        DELAYED    M-H     M-H        17%       M-H          H             L-M            M-H                 H

                             V. Berlandieri













Couderc 3309 (3309C)

Couderc 3309 imparts low to moderate vigor to grafted vines and is a good candidate for high density plantings. Like other rootstocks in this group, it is thought to ripen fruit early. Vines on this rootstock tend to overcrop and have a high yield-to-pruning ratio. The high fruitfulness it induces may require crop adjustment.


Millardet et de Grasset 101-14 (101-14 Mgt)

Millardet et de Grasset 101-14 has become widely planted in the post-AXR #1/biotype B era, and is currently one of the most popular rootstocks. This rootstock induces moderate vigor in scions and is more vigorous than Couderc 3309 when planted on fertile soils with ample water. Unlike Couderc 3309, it induces low yield-to-pruning ratios. Millardet et de Grasset 101-14 has a fairly shallow, well-branched root system and is best suited to moist, deep soils.



Schwartzman has low to moderate vigor similar to Millardet et De Grasset 101-14. Like other members of this family of rootstocks, it improves fruit set. Schwarzmann is recommended for a variety of soil types with the possible exception of heavy clay soils.


Kober 5BB (5BB)

Kober 5BB has very high vigor and is often chosen for varieties which have naturally low vigor. Ripening is delayed by the higher vigor of this rootstock. Kober 5BB is unsuitable for varieties which are prone to coulure except possibly in light and dry soils. In very wet years there have been cases of no fruit-set due to over vigor of shoots and leaves. 




Selection Oppenheim (SO4)

Selection Oppenheim has a moderate to vigorous rootstock, similar to Couderc 3309. Selection Oppenheim develops slowly and shows low vigor in the first years of development, but vigor increases significantly thereafter. It is especially suitable for varieties which are sensitive during flowering; it doesn’t promote coulure or millerandage. Selection Oppenheim favors fruit-set, encourages early development and maturity, also good wood ripening. 


Teleki 5C (5C)

Teleki 5C has been one of the most widely used rootstocks in the post-AXR #1/biotype B phylloxera era. It is a moderate to vigorous rootstock with a vigor that is intermediate between Kober 5BB and Selection Oppenheim. It tends to have a low yield-to-pruning ratio and is well suited for varieties with poor fruit set. 


V. berlandieri x V. rupestris Crosses

Paulsen 1103 (1103P)

Paulsen 1103 is moderate to vigorous (lower than Ruggeri 140 and Ramsey). It has a long vegetative cycle and delays ripening. Its root system is deep growing and strongly developed, and it is adapted to a wide range of soil conditions.


V. riparia x V. solonis Crosses

Couderc 1616 (1616C)

Couderc 1616 is reputed to be a low vigor rootstock, reflecting it’s V. riparia parentage. However, it induces above average vigor in scions on fertile sites with ample water. Fruit set is improved by this rootstock. It has a long vegetative cycle and delays ripening. 


V. cordifolia x V. riparia x V. rupestris Crosses

Malègue 44-53 (44-53M)

Malègue 44-53 is a low- to moderate-vigor rootstock that improves fruit set and advances maturity. This rootstock has a tendency to overbear, and fruit thinning may be required. Its root system is deep growing and performs well under drought conditions. 


V. riparia

Riparia Gloire

Riparia Gloire is known primarily for imparting very low vigor and therefore is a good choice for fertile sites where a very low yield is desired. Riparia Gloire advances ripening and induces very high yield-to-pruning ratios. Fruit must be thinned from vines grafted to this rootstock, or vigor will decline because of a strong tendency to overbear.